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Polygraphy dictionary


Creasing

Extrusion of a hem on cardboard or thick paper with a scoring-perforated machine.

Binding stitching

The method of binding using a plastic or metal spiral, passed through a series of holes punched in the spine.

Booklets

A non-periodical sheet publication, sealed on both sides and folded in any way in two or more folds, delimiting several pages, opening on the principle of a screen. The most common booklets in A4 format with two parallel folds

Matt Paper

Coated paper without visible gloss. This paper combines some of the advantages of uncoated and coated semi-glossy paper.

Coated paper

Printing paper from wood pulp, covered with a layer of white clay or pigments, which is applied to the surface with a binder. This coating improves the homogeneity, the display ability of the surface and the absorbency of paints.

Vector graphics

The format of storage of graphic information, in which the image is represented by a set of coordinates and geometric primitives, the contours of which are given by mathematical formulas.

İmposition

The installation of strips (pages of a book), a magazine or a newspaper of a strictly defined size and shape from the text's borders (representing the columns of a set of arbitrary length), a cliche and some additional elements.

Cutting

Cutting of label and other products of curly, non-rectangular shape, printed in several copies on one sheet of paper.

Gloss

The property of paper that makes it shiny.

Gradient

Any smooth transition between two colors or gradations of gray, in which, in the ideal, there are no distinguishable boundaries between neighboring levels. Often used as a background.

Graphic arts

Figures, photographs and diagrams used to design printed materials.

Prepressing

The whole complex of operations preceding publication printing, including design, layout, set, photographing of originals and production of printed plates.

Cliche

Printed form with embossed printing elements for printing image reproduction.

Check scale

A strip printed on a printed sheet, which is then trimmed, to control variable print characteristics such as trapping, ink density, dot gain and print contrast. Usually consists of printed two or three-color dice and tones; tonal blocks of cyan, magenta, yellow and black inks and has additions such as resolution samples and spacing scales.

Varnishing of the impression

The application of a layer of lacquer on the surface of the printed matter to give it a beautiful shiny appearance and protection from the influence of the atmosphere, moisture, etc.

Sewing machine

Semi-automatic machine for sewing printed products with thread.

Set

The layout of the printed strip from individual elements (text, illustrations, etc.)

Numbering

In printing printing sequential, non-repeating numbers (pages, copies, etc.) on various forms of accounting, receipts or checkbooks, as well as valuable documentation.

Offset paper

Paper used for offset printing. It must be waterproof to limit the absorption of water by the paper, moisturizing the offset printing plate.

Offset printing

The method of flat printing, based on printing with the transfer of ink from the printing form on paper through an elastic intermediate surface.

Offset plates

Rubberized fabric used for covering offset cylinders.

Offset cylinder

Intermediate cylinder of offset printing machine, located between the form and printing cylinders.

Binding

The dense shell of the book. The binding can be soft (flexible) and hard, edging and with edging.

Perforation

Punching on paper numerous small holes, located close to each other along a single line.

Printed sheet

The unit of measurement of the natural volume of the publication.

Printed form

Surface with embossed, recessed or flat printing elements, serving for multiple receipt of impressions.

Printing

A term that combines all the various ways of producing impressions on paper or other material.

Pixel

The minimum element of the image in the digital graphics, characterized by a particular tone value.

Poster

A work of fine art of an agitational nature, usually accompanied by a short, memorable text.

Billet

Printed form or part of it, used for printing background areas (background).

Compilation

The process of picking a block from notebooks or sheets arranged in the right order.

Capture field

The side of the sheet first fed into the printing machine.

Polygraphy

A branch of technology that combines various ways of printed reproduction of text, illustrations, etc. in the form of magazines, books, posters, labels and other varieties of printed products. The main processes of printing technology - the production of printing plates, proper printing and finishing of printed products. There are three main types of printing equipment: high printing, gravure printing and flat printing.

Postpress processing

The whole complex of operations that complete the cycle of production of a printed product, including folding, three-sided pruning, selection, binding, die cutting and stamping.Adjustment

Preparatory process before printing in deep and flat printing, consisting in setting the mold, adjusting the pressure and feeding the paint onto the mold, etc.

Run

Obtaining an impression of a printing plate in one working cycle of a printing machine or machine.

 

Screening machine.

Converting a continuous image into a microstriction, in which the tone gradations are represented by groups of points of different sizes or frequencies.

Rasterization

The type of printing equipment used to cut paper into parts and to trim the edges of book blocks, as well as finished books and magazines.Super cover

Additional protective cover for binding, made of paper.

 

Dry offset

The method of offset printing, eliminating the need for wetting the printing plate.

 

Hard cover

The method of stitching, which allows you to get books in the book cover.

 

Thermopile

A process that simulates embossing with special paints or toners that swell when heated.

 

Thermoglue

Organic substances, in the molten state, are liquids easily applied to the material, and when solidified, they form elastic, durable films. It is used for seamless binding of notebooks.

 

Notebook

The main constructive element of books and journals, obtained as a result of folding a printed sheet or its fraction.

Crucible Machines

High-printing machines, in which both the surface bearing the printing form and the surface pressing the paper to it.

Circulation

The total number of copies of the printed publication.

Embossing

Drawing of text and graphic elements on the sides and the spine of the book covers, produced on gilt presses.

Screen printing

A special type of printing, different from the classical ones, that the image is created in the thickest of the forming surface, and not on the printed form. For printing, stencils are required, the printing elements of which pass the ink, and the whitespace is delayed.

Transfer printing

A special type of printing, different from the classical ones, that the image is created in the thickest of the forming surface, and not on the printed form. For printing, stencils are required, the printing elements of which pass the ink, and the whitespace is delayed.

Trapping

Printing with fresh paint over a pre-printed dry or wet ink film.

Folding

One of the booklet processes, the purpose of which is to fold the printed sheets into a notebook with a certain number of folds.

Filigree

Watermark on paper.

Flyers

Bright, colorful leaflets used as handout material for promotional purposes.

Flyleaf

Double folded in one fold of a sheet of paper, placed between the sides of the binding and the block of the book.

Color separation

The extraction from the color original by photographic means of its constituent colors.

Four-color printing

Color printing from four forms, printing from which is made by three main (yellow, red and blue) and one additional (in most cases black or gray) colors.

Ftp

(file transfer protocol) is a protocol used to transfer files over a computer network based on tcp / ip.Jpeg

Compression (joint photographic experts group) is a lossy compression method based on a discrete cosine transform. It allows you to achieve a balance between the degree of compression and the quality of the playback of the photo.

Pdf

(portable document format) - the format of electronic documents, which allows you to save information about the formatting of the original, used fonts and graphics in one file for transmission through communication channels, scanning and printing.

Post script

A page description language developed in adobe for outputting documents to laser printers and other devices. Ps treats all page elements (including fonts) as geometric objects.

Tiff

(tagged image file format) - a format for storing bitmaps (as a rule, scanned images).

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